Components for gas
and steam turbines


Components for gas
and steam turbines

A steam turbine transforms the thermal energy from pressurized steam into mechanical energy through a rotary motion, by an isentropic transformation of expansion, and it is made of two main elements: a stator, which represents the fixed component, and a rotor, which represents, on the other hand, the moving component, and it can be in a drum, disc, or mixed shape.

In the stator, the steam partially processes the pressure energy into kinetic energy, which, passing through the rotor and its blades, gets, in turn, transformed into mechanical energy.

Several layers of stators and rotors make up a steam turbine, and they can be “action” or “reaction” layers, depending on where the pressure drop happens, whether in its entirety in the stator’s nozzle for the former, or partially in the rotor’s blades in the latter.

Components for gas
and steam turbines


Besides the two main components, stator and rotor, other structural elements make up a steam turbine, the blading attached to the rotor, bearings, and steam seals. A blading is usually made of stainless steel, ideal in cases of high speed and steam temperature. Its connection to a rotor can vary, depending on the range of vibration hazard or the strength of the centrifugal force.

Bearings come into action under extreme conditions of peripheral speed and high load; always accompanied by forced lubrication, which also represents a cooling element, thrust bearings, by nature, must support the axial thrust of the rotor, in both directions, while maintaining a sufficient margin to cope with unforeseen conditions.

The steam seals are created to limit the steam leakage, and can be carbon ring seals or labyrinth seals; the first, in circular sections held pressed to the turbine shaft through the use of springs, are used for low power ranges. For higher ones, axial or more frequently radial labyrinth seals are used, which allow a pressure drop that reduces and contains the output of flow steam.

These machines are used as electric generators, in refining plants, paper mills, chemical or food plants, and finally in boat handling systems.

Gas turbines are internal combustion engines used to move trains, vessels, or generators, which transform the combustible’s chemical energy into mechanical energy. In its simplest form, a gas turbine consists of a turbine shaft on which a compressor is fitted, which may be axial, centrifugal, or mixed, and a combustion chamber; the process consists in the intake and compression of air in the compressor, which then injects it into the combustion chamber.

Here the air, after being mixed with the combustible, which usually is kerosene or liquid/solid or gaseous methane, and after the enthalpy of the gas current has risen, continues passing through the turbine giving it energy; a combustion chamber, therefore, provides heat to the fluid, putting it in contact with the combustible agent, thereby causing the combustion.

These combustion gases, which have elevated temperatures and pressures, move the turbine blades; the turbine, through the rotary movement of its shaft, moves the compressor, which in turn will inject new air into the combustion chamber, allowing a continuous process.

The features of these turbines make them perfect for large energy productions, being therefore used for propulsion systems or power plants.

Officine Meccaniche Zanetti processes and processes and supplies high-pressure and low-pressure turbine casings, blade-carrier cases, rotors for steam turbines, regulation/control rings, burners and compressors.

For any info or quotation, please contact the sales department



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